Vehicle Usage

University vehicles are for transportation in the most effective, efficient and safest way possible for University employees in the performance of their duties.

A University vehicle is defined as a licensed motorized device for land transportation owned, leased or rented by the University, State or any State agency.

The University has policies and procedures regarding drivers and University vehicles. It is the responsibility of each department to assure compliance with these. Please refer to the sections below for specific information.

Vehicle Use Policy

Use and Management of University-Owned Vehicles

Driver Responsibilities

Proper Vehicle Use – Driver Responsibilities

PRM-014 Section 7

Policy: Use and Management of University-Owned Vehicles

The driver of the vehicle has ultimate responsibility for seeking and possessing information about driving safety and road regulations.  The driver must:

  • Have a valid driver’s license, at least 2 years of driving experience, and, if required, appropriate license certification for the type of vehicle he/she is operating. 
  • Grant permission to the University to conduct checks of the driving record with the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles or the motor vehicle authority where licensed.
  • Notify the supervisor of any change in license status.
  • Never drive with any known medical condition that precludes the safe operation of a motor vehicle.
  • Never operate a University-owned vehicle while under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or substances in violation of the law and the University’s policy on the Use of Alcoholic Beverages and Prohibition of Other Drugs.  
  • Never use a cell phone while driving a University- or State-owned vehicle (per 4/29/09 memo from Governor Kaine).
  • Never smoke in any University or State-owned vehicle.
  • Park a University-owned vehicle that is not operating properly or presents an unsafe condition and notify the supervisor for further instructions.
  • Wear a seat belt at all times while the vehicle is in operation.
  • Not leave a University-owned vehicle unattended with the engine running.
  • Lock University-owned vehicles at all times prior to leaving the vehicle unattended when locks are available.
    EXCEPTION:  If this would significantly impact fulfillment of the department’s mission, then the Department Head may exercise judgment and grant necessary exceptions provided the following are adhered to by the driver.  The:
    • vehicle’s keys must never be left with an unoccupied vehicle;
    • driver must take appropriate measures to prevent the theft of University property left in the vehicle; and
    • vehicle must always be locked at the end of each work shift.
  • Limit passenger transportation to University business.
  • Prohibit passengers from riding in the bed of a truck during operation.
  • Report all accidents.
    1. The driver shall utilize the accident packet in the vehicle and follow the instructions noted in Completing Automobile Loss Notice in the Procedure section.   If the accident involving a University-owned vehicle occurred in another state or the District of Columbia, the accident should be reported to the State Police, Highway Patrol, or local police department having jurisdiction.  The driver should obtain the name, address, and policy number of insurers of other involved vehicles and a copy of the accident report and pass this information to his/her immediate supervisor.
  • Follow these steps when parking a University-owned vehicle on a slope where the vehicle has the potential to roll and endanger people or property:
  1. Vehicles with 20,000lbs and higher GVWR (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating = vehicle weight plus load weight) when loaded, being loaded, or being unloaded: the driver must make sure to engage the parking brake, make sure the vehicle is in gear for standard transmissions or in park for automatic transmissions, and block the wheels.
  2. Vehicles with 9,000lbs and higher GVWR when connected to a loaded trailer or when connected to a trailer being loaded or unloaded: the driver must make sure to engage the parking brake, make sure the vehicle is in gear for standard transmissions or in park for automatic transmissions, and block the trailer wheels.
  3. All trailers with GVWR of 4,000lbs or higher, when loaded, being loaded, or being unloaded shall have the trailer tires blocked whenever parked on a slope.

Read and adhere to these Driver’s Responsibilities.  (A printed copy is also located in the glove compartment of each University-owned vehicle.)

Driver Safety Recommendations

Passenger Transport

For drivers who transport passengers in owned or Rented/Leased vehicles on behalf of the University of Virginia.

  • Drivers of large passenger vehicles or vehicles that hold more than 8 occupants, who will be transporting passengers should have a CDL* or meet the following requirements:
    1. Drivers who have not had previous experience with a particular vehicle should spend an adequate amount of time driving that vehicle prior to transporting passengers, preferably in various types of traffic conditions, so that they become thoroughly familiar with the vehicle, and, when possible, accompanied by a driver with experience driving the same type of vehicle.
    2. Students who are not also University employees should not transport passengers in these vehicles.
    3. Minimum age of the driver should be 21 unless the driver has a CDL or EVOC Certification. Every driver should of course possess a valid United States driver's license.
    4. Drivers should have a minimum of two years driving experience.
    5. It is preferable that a driver's motor vehicle report not show two or more at fault accidents and/or serious moving violations in the past year, nor three or more at fault accidents and/or serious moving violations in the past three years. There should be no violations related to alcohol or drugs in the past five years. If the transcript reveals more than what is suggested above, it is up to the discretion of department heads whether to allow the driver to transport passengers on behalf of the University. Human Resources will perform a driver's transcript check by request on employees. If you have particular situations you would like to discuss, please feel free to contact Property & Liability Risk Management for further guidance.
  • Drivers of smaller vehicles than those described in #1 above who will be transporting passengers should consider the guidelines in 1 above. However, in lieu of requesting a DMV report, you may ask the driver to show a valid United States driver's license and to tell you about his/her driving record. If a driver will be transporting students, it is recommended that a DMV report be requested as indicated in item 5 above. Non-employees under 21 should not be transporting passengers on behalf of the University. Avoid the use of students as drivers who are not employees.

*CDL (Commercial Driver's License) is required when driving a vehicle that can transport more than 15 passengers.

15-Passenger Vans & Alternatives

15-Passenger Vans:

The use of 15-passenger vans are prohibited per University policy:  15 Passenger Van Policy

Modified Vans:

Be careful not to use vehicles (small buses or vans) that are basically modified 15-passenger vans with only cosmetic changes and not safety modifications. Any vehicle which is basically a commercial "cutaway" vehicle with an E-350, E-250, 3500, or 2500 chassis (15-passenger van chassis) should have dual rear wheels (two wheels on each end of the rear axle) to promote greater vehicle stability or meet Federal school bus safety regulations Title 49 Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards* (with the exception of regulations #108 involving school bus lights, and #131 involving school bus stop bars). These vehicles typically have 15-passenger van front ends with the remainder of the passenger body "cut away" and replaced with a larger body. Note: if the primary purpose is for the transportation of high school and younger students, it is required that the vehicle meet Federal school bus safety regulations (*To ensure that a vehicle meets this standard, ask the leasing agency to verify that the bus meets the standad.

Ford Transit Vans:

Since these vans offer multiple seat configuration options, it is recommended that only the 12-passenger van with the low roof style of this vehicle be used. Be careful not to use the high or medium roof versions of these vehicles even with the dual rear wheels.

Charter Services:

Departments should make certain that the company being hired has the appropriate insurance. It is recommended that the company have the following: Automobile Liability: $10,000,000 each accident minimum limit of liability for all owned, hired, and non-owned vehicles. General Liability: $1,000,000 per occurrence minimum limit of liability. Workers Compensation per statutory requirement, and Employers' Liability: $1,000,000 minimum limit of liability. It would be appropriate to ask them to provide you with a certificate of insurance as evidence of coverage. You may email orm-frm@virginai.edu or fax (434-982-2635) these to the Property & Liability Risk Management Office for review and advice. If you use the University's bus charter service through the Department of Parking and Transportation, no insurance verification or certificates are necessary. Questions regarding procurement guidelines for such activities should be referred to Procurement and Supplier Diversity Services.

Trailers
PURCHASING

Because a tow vehicle and a trailer form an articulated (hinged) vehicle, weight considerations are very important to safe towing. The tow vehicle must be a proper match for the trailer.  Also, the 7-pin RV style wiring connector is the preferred style for both tow vehicle and trailer.

All trailers must be registered through Parking & Transportation and insured through OPLRM.

USE GUIDELINES
  • Perform a safety inspection before each trip: Make sure that the pin securing the ball mount to the receiver is intact, the hitch coupler is secured, spring bar hinges are tight with the safety clips in place (load equalizer or weight distributing hitches), safety chains are properly attached, and the electrical plug is properly installed. Check for rust on the hitch components.  Once a year, remove and check the ball mount which can rust within the receiver.  If any component shows evidence of perforation, take it to repair facility before using.
  • Practice trailer backing: Backing a trailer into tight places is easier than it looks, but it does take some practice. It's best to practice in a parking lot and in a vehicle that allows you to see the trailer through the rear window. Vans, trucks and campers that have obstructed rear views require more practice and the use of side mirrors. In either case, be patient and make steering adjustments slowly and a little at a time.
  • Watch your tongue weight: How a trailer handles down the road depends upon tongue weight. Too much or too little weight will cause the rear of the trailer to sway and make the tow vehicle difficult to control or even overturn. The tongue weight should not exceed 200 pounds for trailers up to 2,000 pounds. Tongue weight for trailers over 2,000 pounds should be 10-15 percent of the trailer's loaded weight. 
  • Take care of tires: Tires have different load ratings as well. The load rating of the tires must equal the GVWR of the trailer. Tires have the load capacity printed on the sidewall. Take the load capacity of one tire, multiply by the number of tires on the trailer and be sure that number is higher than the GVWR.

It's wise to periodically check tires for wear, cuts or other damage and replace as needed. Above all, maintain the tire pressure recommended by the manufacturer, located on the tire sidewall. Improperly inflated tires will cause them to wear out quicker and reduce fuel mileage. 

  • Keep bearings greased: Wheel bearings are the heart of trailers. They need to remain airtight and packed with fresh grease. Poorly greased bearings will overheat and deteriorate, creating serious problems if they fail. They should be inspected and repacked at least once a year, depending upon the amount of use. Lay your hand on your wheel hubs after traveling. If they feel unusually warm, you may have a problem. But why wait? Routine maintenance is good prevention.       
  • Go wide on turns: Be careful making sharp turns or sudden moves when trailering. The trailer tends to cut corners more sharply than the tow vehicle, which can be dangerous when cutting corners close to curbs, other vehicles and roadside obstructions. Striking solid objects at an angle can cause tire damage, and more importantly, cause you to lose control momentarily.
  • Be a weight watcher: When loading, balance the cargo with 60 percent of the weight near the front.
  • Secure the trailer: Keep the safety chains provided on most trailers fastened securely to the tow vehicle in case the hitch fails. Cross the chains under the trailer tongue and allow slack for turning. For additional security, padlock the trailer hitch to the tow vehicle. That will also prevent someone from stealing the trailer while you're away from the vehicle. 
  • Keep the lights working: The trailer's electrical components are subjected to a great deal of adverse conditions, so check them periodically. Ask someone to step behind the trailer to make sure the taillights, brake lights and turn signals are working properly. If signals are dim, perhaps there is a bad connection or you need a more powerful flasher unit on the tow vehicle. An occasional shot of WD-40 into the pigtail wiring connector will reduce corrosion. If you see a green coating beginning to form on the connector terminals, contact your repair person to replace the connector as failure may be imminent.
  • Make sure your vehicle has towing power: Just because a vehicle has the power to pull a loaded trailer down the road doesn't mean it has the guts to haul it up steep hills, or that brakes are capable of holding it on a steep incline. Follow manufacturers' towing guidelines and never exceed tow limits. Too much trailer weight can cause an accident, or pull the tow vehicle down a steep incline.
HITCHES

Hitches also have a load capacity rating printed or embossed on them. The rating of the hitch must be high enough to tow the GVWR of the trailer. Also, the insert for a receiver hitch that the ball or pintle is attached to has a weight rating, as do all trailer balls. Every component in the hitch setup must be rated to handle the GVWR of the trailer. If the specification data is not present or visible on any component, do not use it. There is no way to know what weight it is rated for. The pin that holds the insert into the receiver is an exception, as they do not typically have a weight rating printed on them. The best practice is to use a brand name pin sold for trailer use. Do not use pins made for other applications, bolts, rod, rebar or any other type of material for this application.

  • The ball and coupler hitch is used on a wide variety of tow vehicle combinations. This hitch consists simply of a ball attached to the rear of a tow vehicle and a coupler (socket) at the tip of a tongue or A-frame attached to the front of the trailer. This hitch is commonly used on recreational trailers.
  • load-distributing hitch is used for heavier models such as utility trailers, boat trailers and travel trailers. These load-distributing hitches use special equipment to distribute the tongue load to all axles of the tow vehicle and trailer to help stabilize the tow vehicle.

Here are some terms you should know when discussing hitch adjustment and in evaluating hitch performance:

  • Receiver: Hitch platform fitted to the tow vehicle.
  • Ball Mount: A removable steel component that fits into the receiver. The ball and spring bars (only on load-distributing hitches) are attached to it.
  • Sway Control: A device designed to lessen the pivoting motion between tow vehicle and trailer when a ball-type hitch is used.
  • Coupler: A ball socket at the front of the trailer A-frame that receives the hitch ball.
  • Spring Bars: Load-leveling bars used to distribute hitch weight among all axles of tow vehicle and trailer in a load distributing, ball-type hitch
WEIGHT DEFINITIONS
  • Base Curb Weight — Weight of the vehicle and trailer not including cargo or any optional equipment.
  • Cargo Weight — Includes cargo, passengers and optional equipment. When towing, trailer tongue weight is also part of the Cargo Weight.
  • Gross Axle Weight (GAW) — The total weight placed on each axle (front and rear). To determine the Gross Axle Weights for your vehicle and trailer combination, take your loaded vehicle and trailer to a scale. With the trailer attached, place the front wheels of the vehicle on the scale to get the front GAW. To get the rear GAW, weigh the towing vehicle with trailer attached, but with just the four wheels of the vehicle on the scale. You get the rear GAW by subtracting the front GAW from that amount. In the absence of a scale, calculate the Front Gross Axle Weight by adding the Front Axle Curb Weight to the Cargo Weight (including passengers) assigned to the front half of the van. Calculate the Rear Gross Axle Weight by adding the Rear Axle Curb Weight to the Cargo Weight (including passengers) assigned to the rear half of the van and the tongue weight of the trailer.
  • Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) — The total weight each axle (front and rear) is capable of carrying. These numbers are shown on the Safety Compliance Certification Label located inside the driver side doorframe. The total load on each axle (GAW) must never exceed its GAWR. 
  • Gross Combination Weight (GCW) — The weight of the loaded vehicle (GVW) plus the weight of the fully loaded trailer. It is the actual weight obtained when the vehicle and trailer are weighed together on a scale. 
  • Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR) — The maximum allowable weight of the towing vehicle and the loaded trailer (including all cargo) that the powertrain can handle without risking costly damage. The measured GCW must never exceed the GCWR. (Important: The towing vehicle's brake system is rated for safe operation at the GVWR — not GCWR. Separate functional brake systems should be used for safe control of towed vehicles and for trailers weighing more than 3,000 lbs. when loaded.)
  • Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) — Base Curb Weight plus actual Cargo Weight. It is the actual weight that is obtained when the fully loaded vehicle is driven onto a scale.
  • Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) — The maximum allowable weight of the fully loaded vehicle (Base Curb Weight plus options plus cargo). The vehicle's measured GVW must never exceed the GVWR. The GVWR, along with other maximum safe vehicle weights, as well as tire, rim size and inflation pressure are shown on the vehicle's Safety Compliance Certification Label.
  • Gross Trailer Weight — Is the highest possible weight of a fully loaded trailer the vehicle can tow. It assumes a towing vehicle with mandatory options, no cargo and the driver only (150 lbs.). The weight of additional optional equipment, cargo and hitch must be deducted from this weight.
  • Payload — Maximum allowable weight of cargo that the vehicle is designed to carry. It is Gross Vehicle Weight Rating minus the Base Curb Weight.
SAFETY TIPS
  • Know your weight limits
    • Make sure your trailer and whatever you’re hauling fall within the towing or hauling capacities of your vehicle. Check the owner’s manual to find the trailer types that your vehicle can haul and the maximum weight it can pull. Use the right trailer hitch and make sure it is hitched correctly.
    • Make sure that the truck and trailer combination you have does not qualify as a commercial vehicle or one needing a commercial drivers license. The laws are different for a truck/trailer combination than they are for a straight truck.
  • Distribute weight evenly
    • If your trailer fishtails, back off the gas and see if it stops. If it continues when you accelerate again, check to see how the weight is distributed on the trailer. It may not be distributed evenly from side to side, or else it’s too far back to place sufficient load on the hitch ball.
    • Try to carry 5-10 percent of the trailer load on the hitch. Redistribute the load as necessary before continuing.
  • Ensure the trailer lights work
    • Connect the brake and signal lights. Double check to make sure the trailer’s brakes, turn signals and tail lights are synchronized with the tow vehicle.
  • Properly inflate the tires
    • In addition to staying within weight limits, be sure the tires are in good condition and properly inflated.
  • Know that your vehicle will handle differently
    • When towing, you’re operating a vehicle combination that’s longer and heavier than normal. Be sure to adjust your driving practices accordingly.
  • Increase stopping distance
    • When towing, you have more momentum than you would without a trailer. Remember that stopping requires more time and distance. Avoid tailgating and pay attention to what’s happening a little farther down the road than you normally would.
  • Keep your head on a swivel
    • Once you’re on the road, frequently check your mirrors to make sure everything looks good back there.
  • Use trailer safety chains
    • All trailers should have safety chains that hook up to the hitch.
  • Use wheel chocks.
    • When unhooking the trailer from the tow vehicle, place wheel chocks (sturdy, wedge-shaped blocks) in front of and behind the trailer’s tires to ensure the trailer doesn’t roll away when it is released from the tow vehicle.
  • Make wider turns at curves and corners.
    • Because your trailer’s wheels will end up closer to the inside of a turn than the wheels of your tow vehicle, the trailer tires are more likely to hit or ride up over curbs. Safe towing requires that the driver take constant care to give a wider berth than usual around any corner.
  • Secure your load
    • Make sure whatever load you are carrying is secured. Acquaint yourself with the laws governing tie downs for specific types of loads and equipment. Purchase tie downs with sufficient weight rating for the items you are hauling.